a b s t r a c t
Mayer and Frantz (2004) proposed that their connectedness to nature scale (CNS) provides a measure of people’s emotional connection to nature. After reanalyzing data from their article, collecting andanalyzing our own data, and conducting a content analysis of CNS scale items, we conclude that the CNSdoes not measure an emotional connection to nature. Although results from our Study 1 and Study 2support Mayer and Frantz’s conclusion that the CNS measures one predominant factor, we suggest thatfactor measures cognitive beliefs and not emotional connections. Results from our Studies 3 and 4suggest that the self-referential, less negatively toned wording of CNS items may account for differencesin correlations, between the CNS and environmentalism (a measure of environmental identity) andbetween the New Ecological Paradigm Scale (a measure of environmental beliefs) and environmentalism,reported by Mayer and Frantz. In Study 5, we suggest that correlation differences reported by Mayer andFrantz may also be attributable to method variance, as opposed to content differences between the CNSand the New Ecological Paradigm scale. We provide recommendations for revising the CNS to focus onbeliefs about their connection to nature.