Abstract – With the increasing awareness of sustainable development in the construction industry, implementation of a green rating procedure to assess buildings is becoming more important. The rating tool set benchmarks for green measures for constructing and using buildings to make them sustainable and to reduce their negative impacts on environment. The most representative building environment assessment schemes in India that are in use today are Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) and Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA). This paper aims to focus on the study of LEED and GRIHA rating system and compare both with regards to their assessment methods; scopes, performance criteria and energy rating scales are presented. Through this study, an attempt is made to make clear understanding of LEED and GRIHA rating system assessment criteria that need to be considered during comparison. From this Comparative study prepare a general checklist which will cover each and every aspect required for assessment and certification for any small scale green building project.
Keywords—Green building, Rating system, LEED, GRIHA, Energy performance assessment
I. INTRODUCTION The green building trend has increased rapidly worldwide in recent decades. The idea of green rating of buildings has taken roots in India. This is in line with the global trend in which the rating tools set benchmarks for green measures for constructing and using buildings to make them sustainable and to reduce their negative impacts on environment. Based on the magnitude of green measures adopted, points are awarded to a building and, after appropriate weighting; a total score is ascribed to determine the rating of the building. This helps to convey the range of application of green measures in building construction. A green building is one which uses less water, optimizes energy efficiency, conserves natural resources, generates less waste and provides healthier spaces for occupants, as compared to a conventional building.” Green or sustainable Building is a designing concept that reduces the environmental impact of buildings through innovative land use and construction strategies. A Green Building is a building which incorporates the use of clean, renewable energy and efficient use of natural resources and recycled or recyclable materials to provide healthy indoors. The modern buildings fulfill the requirements of artificial comforts, but in turn consume excess energy and other natural resources. On the contrary, Green Buildings combine various eco-friendly concepts thereby increasing the working efficiency, providing the luxuries with the reduction in costs. Worldwide various rating systems have been developed. In 1996, The Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) in UK was developed. In year 1996, the Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method (HK-BEAM) was introduced in Hong Kong. In year 1998 the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system was introduced in US. In year 2002 Green building council of Australia introduced Green Star rating system. In year 2005 the building and Construction Authority of Singapore introduced Green Mark rating system. And Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) in India. In the last two decades there has been a significant evolution in the way rating tool methodologies assess the building sector. In the beginning of the 1990’s the rating tool technique’s developed with main focus in design stage, where as the actual construction was not so important. At the start of the 21st century, this trend has gone in reverse, where most rating tool methodologies show significantly increased concern in the actual construction and a less focus in merely building design. At the same time, since 2006 a new trend in a green building rating has arose, where the main focus is now on the form of sustainable performance. This recent performance trend has expanded the implications of sustainable buildings. As the orientation in direction to the construction stage and sustainable performance expands in time, the rating tools methodologies will accommodate accordingly, shifting increasing categories and weighting from building design perspective to building performance. Hence, this will have a powerful effect on the future configuration of the building sector. LEED India and GRIHA are the most accepted and common rating systems in Indian green building industry. In this regard, LEED & GRIHA systems are similar in aims, approach and structure to rate the performance of the building sector and create according grade levels for accreditation. However, the sustainability rating methodology varies considerably, from tool rating system one to another in terms of measurement of building performance, scope and environmental criteria within the infrastructure sector. II. AN OVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING RATING SYSTEMS A. LEED-2011 for India NC rating system The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating System represents the U.S. Green Building Council’s effort to provide a national standard for what constitutes a “green building.” LEED-India programmed has adapted from United States Green Building Council’s (USGBC) in 2007. This is purely a private initiative which is run by the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in India. IGBC has set up the LEED 2011 for India Core Committee with the objective of the LEED rating system for the Indian context. LEED provides guidelines and specifications for building construction to achieve its sustainability goals and objectives. LEED is similar to checklist of credits that can be achieved 7 major categories. Following are these categories. 1) Sustainable Sites 2) Water Efficiency 3) Energy & Atmosphere 4) Materials & Resources 5) Indoor Environmental Quality 6) Innovation & Design Process 7) Regional Priority Through its use as a design guideline and third-party certification tool, it aims to improve occupant well-being, environmental performance and economic returns of buildings using established and innovative practices, standards and technologies. LEED is similar to checklist of credits that can be achieved in 7 major categories. LEED evaluates a building for the amount of sustainability objectives it achieves and recognizes building at four certification level ( Certified, Silver, Gold, Platinum) LEED is considered to be one of the most successful green building rating systems in the world because of its early market penetration and adoption by professionals. Since the CII-Godrej GBC achieved the prestigious LEED rating for its own centre at Hyderabad in 2003, the Green building movement has gained tremendous momentum. The Platinum rating awarded for this building sparked off considerable enthusiasm in the country. This rating system is based on accepted energy and environmental principles and strikes a balance between known established practices and emerging concepts. It is performanceoriented, wherein credits are earned for satisfying criteria addressing specific environmental impacts inherent in the design and construction. Different levels of green building certification are awarded based on the total credits earned. The system is designed to be comprehensive in scope, yet simple in application. The specific credits in the rating system provide guidelines for the design and construction of buildings of all sizes in both the public and private sectors. The intent of LEED 2011 for India is to assist in the creation of high performance, healthful, durable, affordable and environmentally sound commercial and institutional buildings. Fig. 1. LEED India Evaluation criteria 23.63 9.1 31.82 12.73 13.63 5.45 3.64 LEED INDIA Sustainable Sites Water efficiency Energy & Atmosphere Materials & Resources Indoor Environmental Quality Innovation In Design Regional Priority • Credit Points under Different Categories 1. 100 possible points under the five core categories – SS, WE, EA, MR & IEQ 2. 6 possible points under ‘Innovation in Design’ 3. 4 possible points under ‘Regional Priority’ 4. Total possible points achieved are 110.